Posts Tagged ‘ACL’

IPv4 and IPv6 Access Control Lists In Cisco IOS

Wednesday, November 5th, 2008

Do you feel like you are comfortable with writing ACLs? This will be refreshing!

I’ll get to IPv6 in the bottom of this, it might prove extremely useful to understand the concept at first.

What are Access Control Lists?
ACLs are simple rulesets, they can be used to filter network traffic, routing updates, matching packets and a lot of different uses. The most common and basic usage must be to restrict network traffic to your router by applying it on the vty lines.

The access control lists have numbers and can also have text as identifiers, each number or string represents a specific access control list.

There are several “classes” of Access Control Lists, the most common ones are

  1. IP Standard Access List
    List numbers 1-99, can only define source or destination, not source and destination.
  2. IP Extended Access List
    List numbers 100-199, can define both source and destination as well as port and protocol numbers.

Okay, I understand…. but how do I configure it?

A IP standard access control list with two entries is configured like this

Router#conf t
Router(config)#ip access-list standard 5
Router(config-std-nacl)#5 permit
Router(config-std-nacl)#10 permit

To apply this inbound on an interface, just use

Router#conf t
Router(config)#int te 1/1
Router(config-if)#ip access-group 5 in

The alternative way to define an access list number 5 with two entries is

Router#conf t
Router(config)#access-list 5 permit
Router(config)#access-list 5 permit

To apply this one inbound on a line interface

Router#conf t
Router(config)#line vty 1
Router(config-line)#access-class 5 in

Nice, now I have a lot of ACLs configured in my network for all the IPv4 traffic, mon ami! But IPv6 traffic still seems to keep flowing right through, thought you said you were supposed to make sense of all this in the end?

Yeah, I know I promised that and as long as you understand the IPv4 basics you will understand IPv6 pretty well. You will need to understand basic IPv6 subnetting theory to be able to filter subnets (obviously), if anyone wants me to write an article about it, just comment about it and I will get on to it ASAP. When you learn that, you will see that IPv6 access control lists are pretty much the same as for IPv4.

Anyways, I take for granted you understand IPv6 subnetting by now so I will just get right on to the configuration, an example for an IPv6 access list in Cisco IOS follows

Router#conf t
Router(config)#ipv6 access-list myfirewall
Router(config-ipv6-acl)#permit 3ffe:200::/32 any
Router(config-ipv6-acl)#permit 3ffe:100::/32 any

To verify the access-lists just look at this

Router#show access-lists myfirewall
IPv6 access list myfirewall
permit ipv6 3FFE:200::/32 any sequence 10
permit ipv6 3FFE:201::/32 any sequence 20

To apply this IPv6 Access Control List to an interface, just do as follows

Router#conf t
Router(config)#int te 1/1
Router(config-if)#ipv6 traffic-filter myfirewall in

To apply this IPv6 access control list to a line

Router#conf t
Router(config)#line vty 1
Router(config-line)#ipv6 access-class myfirewall in

5 Tips to Securing a Cisco Network

Monday, October 27th, 2008

Some things you can’t do something about, but you should take security seriously.

1. Reverse Path Forwarding
When you enable Reverse Path Forwarding (RPF) on an interface, the router will check with a lookup in the FIB/CEF table to see that there exists a path back to the source address on the interface on which it receives a packet. This avoids spoofing of packets.

The way to configure reverse path forwarding is like this

Router#configure terminal
Router(config)#interface GigabitEthernet 2/1
Router(config-if)#ip verify unicast reverse-path

2. Silence that port
A lot of networks leak sensitive information on their switchports, this should be a pretty silent switchport.

Switch#configure terminal
Switch(config)#interface GigabitEthernet0/16
Switch(config-if)#no cdp enable
Switch(config-if)#spanning-tree bpdufilter enable
Switch(config-if)#no keepalive

This will supress CDP (Cisco Discovery Protocol), spanning-tree bpdu’s and ethernet keepalives on that interface. In my last post I wrote a little about storm-control and port security.

3. Configure AAA and ACL’s for secure VTY access
VTY’s are for example the telnet connections on Cisco, to configure who should be able to access your switch via telnet just do like this:

Switch#configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
Switch(config)#access-list 80 permit
Switch(config)#access-list 80 permit
Switch(config)#line vty 0 15
Switch(config-line)#access-class 80 in

This will limit VTY access to and, the netmask is a Cisco wildcard mask, troubles figuring them out? Try the wildcard cheat.

If you want to have separate users (will show up in logs) instead of the regular password prompt, you can configure AAA as such:

Switch#configure terminal
Switch(config)#username cisco secret mypassword
Switch(config)#aaa new-model
Switch(config)#aaa authentication login default local
Switch(config)#line vty 0 15
Switch(config-line)#login authentication default

4. Encrypt passwords in Configuration
Do you see this in your configuration?

Switch#show run | include ^username
username admin password 0 mysecret

To enable encryption of passwords just configure

Switch#configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
Switch(config)#service password-encryption
*Mar 4 10:21:10.343: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console
Switch#show run | include ^username
username admin password 7 060B1632494D1B1C11

This gives Cisco Type 7 encryption (which, I am sorry to say; is very crackable), but it is at least something.
I like to use ‘secret’ instead of ‘password’ which gives MD5 passwords in the configuration file, I am not sure of the difference, but it seems to give me what I want.

5. More secure routing protocols with passive-interface default
A passive interface is an interface which does not send nor receive routing information. Passive-interface default is supported by all routing protocols, and is configured quickly.

router routing-protocol
passive-interface default
no passive-interface interface

Passive-interface default sets all interfaces passive, and no passive-interface activates one interface. I have a more real life configuration example below.

Router#configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#router ospf 1
Router(config-router)#passive-interface default
Router(config-router)#no passive-interface fastEthernet 0/2
*Mar 4 10:36:17.931: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console

This will ensure that OSPF traffic is only exchanged on fastEthernet 0/2.

5 Magic Cisco tips & tricks aka magic IOS commands

Monday, September 15th, 2008

I have been working a lot for several years, and now I want to share some of my best tips for working faster and more efficient on Cisco routers in Cisco IOS.

I posted earlier about the ‘do’ command, but I am going to include it here because it is so darn practical.

So with no further mess – here is the list, not sorted after any specific order.

  1. ‘do’ in config mode
    This is one of the most time saving ones that few people seem to know about, use it!
    It lets you run exec commands in global configuration mode.
  2. include, exclude and begin
    Ever wanted to find something in the configuration? Or maybe you want to see some info, and not some?
    Use include or exclude, for example you can do

    Router1(config)# do show running-config | include ip_address

    This will include every occurance of ‘ip address’ in your running configuration file, the underscore works for spaces, and as such you can also do

    Router1(config)# do show running-config | exclude password

    This will exclude every line that has the word ‘password’ in it, can be usefull if you are listing the configuration file to someone, or you can even do

    Router1(config)# do show running-config | exclude (password|secret)

    This will exclude every line containing EITHER password or secret, and you can use regular expressions here.
    This means that even show interfaces | include (^Vlan|Internet_address|packets\/sec) is valid, which will give you a list of your Vlan interfaces.

  3. alias ps
    Use aliases, do you ever run the same commands a thousand times?
    I have at least these aliases in place on all my equipment:

    alias exec sb show ip int brief
    alias exec ps sh proc cpu | excl 0.00%__0.00%__0.00%

  4. time-range command

    time-range Workhours
    periodic weekdays 8:00 to 16:00
    ip access-list extended permit Permission-To-Internal-Server-In-Work-Hours
    permit tcp any host eq www time-range Workhours
    deny tcp any host eq www
    permit ip any any

    This will allow access to within 8am and 4pm

  5. Redistribute default gateway route into OSPF
    A lot of people are wondering about this one too.

    Router1(config-rtr)# default-information originate always

    This is done under the ‘router ospf’ in global configuration.